Chapter 2: Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology
1. Which type of cell adaptation occurs when normal columnar ciliated epithelial cells of the
bronchial lining have been replaced by stratified squamous epithelial cells?
a. Hyperplasia c. Dysplasia
b. Metaplasia d. Anaplasia
Metaplasia is the reversible replacement of one mature cell by another, sometimes a less
differentiated cell type. The best example of metaplasia is the replacement of normal
columnar ciliated epithelial cells of the bronchial (airway) lining by stratified squamous
epithelial cells. The other options do not accurately describe the event in the question.
PTS: 1 REF: Page 54
2. The loss of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during ischemia causes cells to:
a. Shrink because of the influx of calcium (Ca).
b. Shrink because of the influx of potassium chloride (KCl).
c. Swell because of the influx of sodium chloride (NaCl).
d. Swell because of the influx of nitric oxide (NO).
A reduction in ATP levels causes the plasma membrane’s sodium-potassium (Na+
and sodium-calcium exchange to fail, which leads to an intracellular accumulation of sodium
and calcium and diffusion of potassium out of the cell. (The Na+
pump is discussed in
Chapter 1.) Sodium and water can then freely enter the cell, and cellular swelling results. The
other options do not accurately describe the result of ATP at the cellular level.
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3. The mammary glands enlarge during pregnancy primarily as a consequence of hormonal:
a. Atrophy c. Anaplasia
b. Hyperplasia d. Dysplasia
Hormonal hyperplasia occurs chiefly in estrogen-dependent organs, such as the uterus and
breast. The remaining options do not adequately describe the consequence of hormones on
breast tissue during pregnancy.
PTS: 1 REF: Page 53
4. Free radicals play a major role in the initiation and progression of which diseases?
a. Cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and ischemic heart disease
b. Renal diseases such as acute tubular necrosis and glomerulonephritis
c. Gastrointestinal diseases such as peptic ulcer disease and Crohn disease
d. Muscular disease such as muscular dystrophy and fibromyalgia