Chapter 02: Inflammation and Repair
Ibsen: Oral Pathology for the Dental Hygienist, 7th Edition
1. A decrease in the size and function of a cell, a tissue, an organ, or the body is referred to as
Atrophy is defined as a decrease in the size and function of a cell, a tissue, an organ, or the
whole body. Emigration is the passage of white blood cells through the endothelium and wall
of the microcirculation into the injured tissue. Hyperplasia is the enlargement of a tissue or
organ resulting from an increase in the number of normal cells. Phagocytosis is the process of
ingestion and digestion of particulate material by cells.
REF: Reactive Tissue Response, page 43 OBJ: 8
2. The first response of the body to injury is
The inflammatory response is the first reaction to injury, and it involves a series of
microscopic events. Anaphylaxis is a severe type of hypersensitivity or allergic reaction in
which there is an exaggerated immunologic reaction resulting from the release of vasoactive
substances such as histamine. Erythema is redness of the skin or mucosa and is a local sign of
inflammation. Fever is the elevation of the normal body temperature and is a systemic sign of
REF: Inflammation, page 34 OBJ: 1
3. Which type of inflammation occurs when the injury is minimal and brief and its source is
removed from the tissue?
Acute inflammation occurs when the injury is minimal and brief. Chronic inflammation
occurs when the inflammatory response lasts for longer periods, even indefinitely. Local is a
term used to describe a specific area of inflammation. Systemic factors such as fever,
leukocytosis, and lymphadenopathy occur when the injury is extensive.
REF: Inflammation, page 34 OBJ: 2