Test Bank (Download Now) For Literacy in Australia: Pedagogies for Engagement, 3rd Edition By Amy Seely Flint, Lisbeth Kitson, Kaye Lowe, Kylie Shaw, Sally Humphrey, Mark Vicars, Jessa Rogers, Shelley Ware ISBN: 9780730369226

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Test Bank (Download Now) For Literacy in Australia: Pedagogies for Engagement, 3rd Edition By Amy Seely Flint, Lisbeth Kitson, Kaye Lowe, Kylie Shaw, Sally Humphrey, Mark Vicars, Jessa Rogers, Shelley Ware ISBN: 9780730369226


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Test Bank (Download Now) For Literacy in Australia: Pedagogies for Engagement, 3rd Edition By Amy Seely Flint, Lisbeth Kitson, Kaye Lowe, Kylie Shaw, Sally Humphrey, Mark Vicars, Jessa Rogers, Shelley Ware ISBN: 9780730369226


About the adapting authors viii

Chapter 1 Examining literacy in the twenty-first century 1

1.1 Mind the gap: literacy practices in school and outside of school 5

1.2 Perspectives on what it means to be literate 7

1.3 Models of schooling that affect literacy development 8

Learning as skill building: industrial model 9

Investigating a question: inquiry model 12

Problematising the status quo: critical model 14

1.4 Six guiding principles for teaching reading and writing in the twenty-first century 16

Principle 1: literacy practices are socially and culturally constructed 16

Principle 2: literacy practices are purposeful 17

Principle 3: literacy practices contain ideologies and values 18

Principle 4: literacy practices are learned through inquiry 19

Principle 5: literacy practices invite readers and writers to use their background knowledge and cultural understandings to make sense of texts 20

Principle 6: literacy practices expand to include everyday texts and multimodal texts 22

1.5 The Australian Curriculum 24

1.6 Creating a vision for effective literacy instruction 25

Chapter 2 Talking to learn in and out of the classroom 31

2.1 Spoken language development 33

Learning to talk 33

Pointing, imitating and pretending: the origins of literacy 34

Meaning, language and learning 35

From home to school 36

From everyday knowledge to educational knowledge 36

Learning language, learning through language, learning about language 37

Conditions for language learning 37

2.2 Spoken language use and language variation 38

Language variation in response to cultural and social contexts 40

Variations in spoken language 40

English language variation and language standard 41

Language variation as a resource for learning 47

2.3 Language and literacy in the curriculum: implications for teaching literacy 50

2.4 Learning language 52

Learning through language 55

2.5 Learning about language 56

A language for talking about language: metalanguage 57

Knowledge about sounds and graphic symbols 58

Knowledge about grammar, words and punctuation 61

Meaning 62

Chapter 3 Getting to know students: Developing culturally relevant practices for reading and writing 68

3.1 Examining cultural diversity in classroom settings 70

Recognising differences in literacy learning within the classroom 71

Learning about home and community practices 72

3.2 Teaching from a culturally relevant perspective 75

3.3 Supporting linguistically diverse learners in reading and writing 76

Connecting students’ background knowledge and personal experiences to literacy events 77

Creating opportunities for students to meaningfully and authentically apply oral language skills 78

Encouraging students’ primary language and/or code switching during literacy events 79

Contextualising instruction of language through authentic literature 79

Documenting students’ home and community literacy practices 80

Establishing culturally relevant interaction patterns in literacy events 82

3.4 Using early assessment to know your students 85

3.5 Kid-watching 86

3.6 Attitudes and interest in reading and writing 89

Attitude questionnaires and surveys 89

Interviews 90

Chapter 4 Theories of literacy development 95

4.1 What does theory have to do with curriculum building? 98

Uncovering your beliefs about teaching and instruction 99

4.2 Four classroom portraits and four theories of literacy development 99

Ms Robyn Teal’s classroom: learning to read means focusing on skills 100

Bottom-up theory of literacy development 102

Ms Cheryl Battle’s classroom: learning to read means understanding the meaning of words 104

Mr Thomas Ruby’s classroom: learning to read means learning how to respond to a text 109

Ms Pauline Fuller’s classroom: learning to read means critically examining the text 114

4.3 Reading models for the twenty-first century classroom 119

Chapter 5 Literacy programs and approaches 124

5.1 Approaches to literacy education 126

Basic skills: grammar conventions, decoding and drills 127

Whole language: authentic texts and meaning making 129

Focus on social practice: situated literacies 130

Text-based literacy and multiliteracy approaches 130

The current situation in Australia 131

5.2 Classroom approaches to literacy programs 133

Developing or adapting a program 133

Theme and concept-based units 134

Literature-based units 135

5.3 Resourcing your classroom literacy program 137

5.4 Scaffolding for literacy 139

The gradual release of responsibility model 140

The teaching learning cycle 140

Reading to learn 141

5.5 Reading and writing procedures within a scaffolding cycle 141

Establishing a shared context 141

Scaffolding for reading and viewing 142

Modelling language and strategies for reading 143

Scaffolding for composition 147

5.6 Structure of literacy instruction 152

Commercial literacy programs 153

5.7 Creating a literacy-rich environment 154

Spaces and places in the classroom to support literacy development 154

Chapter 6 Entering into the literacy landscape: Emergent readers and writers 162

6.1 Historical beginnings of emergent literacy 164

Reading readiness 165

Emergent literacy 167

6.2 Oral language learning: what it means for emergent reading and writing practices 170

Conditions for developing oral language skills 171

Conditions to support young English language learners (ELLs) in preschool settings 172

Dimensions of emergent literacy 173

Concepts of texts 175

Concepts of words 177

Concepts of letters and sounds 178

Assessing the dimensions of emergent literacy 180

6.3 Emergent writing 181

Inventing and refining written language forms 182

Emergent spelling 183

Emergent writing and meaning making 187

6.4 Literacy and technology in early literacy settings 188

Concepts of screen 188

Reading on devices 188

6.5 Literacy events and practices: promoting emergent reading and writing 190

Make use of environmental print 190

Writing centres 191

Reading aloud 192

Reading aloud as a cultural practice 193

Sociodramatic play settings 194

Language experience approach stories (LEA) and the digital language experience approach (D-LEA) 195

Chapter 7 Beginning readers and writers 203

7.1 Guiding principles to promote beginning reading and writing 205

7.2 Exploring beginning reading through the four-resource model 210

Code breaking to exemplify how words work 211

Becoming a text participant 221

Understanding how texts are used 225

Text analyst — thinking critically about texts 226

7.3 Literacy blocks for beginning readers 227

Creating a routine for primary level literacy blocks 228

Teacher-led inquiries 229

Reading and responding 230

7.4 Connections to national achievement standards 243

Chapter 8 Intermediate and accomplished readers and writers 250

8.1 Needs and characteristics of students in middle to upper primary 252

8.2 Guiding principles for intermediate and accomplished readers and writers 253

8.3 What do we teach intermediate and accomplished readers and writers? 256

8.4 Key understandings about multimodal and digital texts 259

8.5 How do we teach intermediate and accomplished readers and writers? 261

Selecting texts for intermediate and accomplished readers 262

Reading and writing conferences 263

8.6 The four-resource model for intermediate and accomplished readers and writers 264

Code breaking for intermediate and accomplished readers 265

Text participant practices with intermediate and accomplished readers 272

Text use with intermediate and accomplished readers and writers 282

Developing critical practices with intermediate and accomplished readers 284

Chapter 9 Effective assessment practices for reading and writing 293

9.1 Formative and summative assessments 295

9.2 Tests and assessments in schools 296

National Assessment Program — Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) 296

Purposes for assessments 299

Literacy assessments reveal ideologies about learning and literacy 301

9.3 The cycle of reflection–assessment–instruction 302

9.4 Traditional and authentic assessment practices 304

Who is interested in assessment? High stakes for parents, teachers and schools 304

Authentic assessment practices 305

Types of authentic assessment practices 306

9.5 Gathering information to use in assessing readers’ and writers’ growth in literacy development 316

Portfolio systems 317

9.6 Assessment practices align with code breaking, text meaning, text use and critical practices 318

Code-breaking assessment 319

Text participant assessments 322

Text use assessments 325

Critical practices assessments 325

Chapter 10 Literature in the classroom 329

10.1 What is literature? 331

The picturebook 332

Graphic novels and manga 334

E-literature 336

Film and television 337

10.2 Literature and context 338

Historical, cultural and social contexts 338

10.3 Responding to literature 340

Reader-response theory 341

Take a stance: a reader’s purpose and attitude 342

10.4 Goals for literature discussions 345

Response and interpretive authority 346

Teacher-led discussions 347

Teacher-led, student-centred discussions 347

Student-led discussions 348

10.5 Examining literature for its features and language 350

Key features of literary texts 351

The language of literary texts 352

10.6 Creating literary texts 355

Author craft 356

Poetry 357

Innovation on a text 357

Digital storytelling 358

Chapter 11 ICTs and reading to learn in the content areas 365

11.1 Reading to learn: the literacy demands in content areas 367

Literacy demands in humanities and social sciences 371

Literacy demands in science 372

Literacy demands in mathematics 373

11.2 Technology and literacy 374

11.3 Integrating ICTs and literacy in the content areas 377

ICT capability across the content areas 380

11.4 Using inquiry-based learning 382

Key principles of inquiry-based learning 383

The teacher’s role in inquiry-based learning 384

Selecting an inquiry topic 385

Planning for inquiry in the classroom 386

11.5 Using texts to develop knowledge and literacy in the content areas 389

Reading and writing to learn in the content areas 389

Using resources to develop knowledge and understanding in the content areas 390

11.6 Teaching strategies for reading and writing in the content areas 396

Read informative texts aloud 397

Provide time to read in content areas 398

Scaffolding creating and communicating with ICTs 398

11.7 Developing literate practices in the content areas: the four-resource model 399

Code-breaking practices 399

Text participant practices 402

Chapter 12 Working with struggling readers and writers 411

12.1 Factors that contribute to struggling reading and writing 413

Cognitive processing 414

Motivation and engagement 414

Teachers’ and parents’ beliefs and attitudes 419

12.2 Identifying struggling readers and writers during literacy events 420

12.3 Instructional practices for struggling readers and writers 421

Echo reading 422

Shared reading 423

Neurological impress method (NIM) 423

Interest and background 423

Read-alouds to extend comprehension and pave the way forward for readers’ choices 424

Voluntary free reading time 425

Buddy reading 426

Reading all day across all curriculum areas 427

Scaffolding 428

Comprehension monitoring strategies 429

12.4 Supporting struggling readers through parent education 431

Creating partnerships with parents and carers 433

12.5 Teaching all children to lead literate lives in the twenty-first century 435

Index 443