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Test Bank (Download Now) For Human Physiology, 2nd Edition By Bryan H. Derrickson ISBN: 9781119484868

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Test Bank (Download Now) For Human Physiology, 2nd Edition By Bryan H. Derrickson ISBN: 9781119484868

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 An Introduction to Physiology 1

1.1 Physiology Defined 2

1.2 Levels of Organization in the Body 2

1.3 Life Processes 5

1.4 Homeostasis 7

1.5 Physiology as a Science 13

1.6 Key Themes of Physiology 16

Chapter Review 18 / Ponder This 19 / Answers to Figure Questions 19

2 Chemical Composition of the Body 20

2.1 How Matter Is Organized 21

2.2 Chemical Bonds 25

2.3 Chemical Reactions 30

2.4 Inorganic Compounds and Solutions 31

2.5 Organic Compounds 36

Chapter Review 56 / Ponder This 58 / Answers to Figure Questions 58

3 Cells 60

3.1 Components of a Cell 61

3.2 The Plasma Membrane 62

3.3 Cytoplasm 64

3.4 Nucleus 73

3.5 Gene Expression 75

3.6 Cell Division 79

3.7 Cellular Diversity 83

3.8 Organization of Cells into Tissues 84

4 Metabolism 98

4.1 An Overview of Metabolism 99

4.2 Energy and Metabolism 100

4.3 Enzymes 102

4.4 Role of ATP in Metabolism 106

4.5 Carbohydrate Metabolism 113

4.6 Lipid Metabolism 121

4.7 Protein Metabolism 122

4.8 Nutrition and Metabolism 125

Chapter Review 128 / Ponder This 130 / Answers to Figure Questions 130

5 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 131

5.1 Selective Permeability of the Plasma Membrane 132

5.2 Gradients across the Plasma Membrane 133

5.3 Classification of Membrane Transport Processes as Passive or Active 134

5.4 Passive Transport 134

5.5 Active Transport 145

5.6 Vesicular Transport 147

5.7 Transepithelial Transport 153

Chapter Review 156 / Ponder This 158 / Answers to Figure Questions 158

6 Cell Signaling 159

6.1 Methods of Cell-to-Cell Communication 160

6.2 Extracellular Chemical Messengers 161

6.3 Receptors 165

6.4 Signal Transduction Pathways 170

6.5 Comparison of the Nervous and Endocrine Systems 186

Chapter Review 187 / Ponder This 188 / Answers to Figure Questions 188

7 The Nervous System and Neuronal Excitability 190

7.1 Overview of the Nervous System 191

7.2 Cells of the Nervous System 193

7.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons 200

7.4 Signal Transmission at Synapses 223

7.5 Neurotransmitters 232

7.6 Neural Circuits 237

Chapter Review 239 / Ponder This 241 / Answers to Figure Questions 241

8 The Central Nervous System 243

8.1 Spinal Cord 244

8.2 Brain 249

8.3 Integrative Functions of the Cerebrum 266

Chapter Review 278 / Ponder This 278 / Answers to Figure Questions 279

9 Sensory Systems 280

9.1 Overview of Sensation 281

9.2 The Somatic Sensory System 292

9.3 The Olfactory System 307

9.4 The Gustatory System 310

9.5 The Visual System 314

9.6 The Auditory and Vestibular Systems 333

Chapter Review 347 / Ponder This 349 / Answers to

Figure Questions 349

10 Autonomic and Somatic Nervous Systems 351

10.1 Autonomic Nervous System 352

10.2 Somatic Nervous System 366

11 Muscle 375

11.1 Overview of Muscle 376

11.2 Organization of Skeletal Muscle 378

11.3 Contraction and Relaxation of Skeletal Muscle Fibers 386

11.4 ATP Production in Skeletal Muscle 394

11.5 Skeletal Muscle Mechanics 397

11.6 Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers 405

11.7 Cardiac Muscle 408

11.8 Smooth Muscle 411

11.9 Regeneration of Muscle 418

Chapter Review 421 / Ponder This 423 / Answers to Figure Questions 423

12 Control of Body Movement 425

12.1 Overview of Motor Control 426

12.2 Local Level of Motor Control 427

13 The Endocrine System 447

13.1 Overview of the Endocrine System 448

13.2 Pituitary Gland 455

13.3 Thyroid Gland 467

13.4 Parathyroid Glands 471

13.5 Adrenal Glands 473

13.6 Pineal Gland 478

13.7 Pancreas 479

13.8 Ovaries and Testes 486

13.9 Other Endocrine Organs and Tissues 486

13.10 Endocrine Control of Growth 489

13.11 The Stress Response 492

13.6 Pineal Gland 478

13.7 Pancreas 479

13.8 Ovaries and Testes 486

13.9 Other Endocrine Organs and Tissues 486

13.10 Endocrine Control of Growth 489

13.11 The Stress Response 492

Chapter Review 496 / Ponder This 498 / Answers to Figure Questions 498

14 The Cardiovascular System: The Heart 500

14.1 Basic Design of the Cardiovascular System 501

14.2 Organization of the Heart 504

14.3 Cardiac Muscle Tissue and the Cardiac Conduction System 511

14.4 The Cardiac Cycle 523

14.5 Cardiac Output 525

14.6 Exercise and the Heart 534

15 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics 540

15.1 Overview of the Vasculature 541

15.2 Capillary Exchange and Lymphatics 547

15.3 Hemodynamics 554

15.4 Control of Blood Flow 563

15.5 Regulation of Mean Arterial Pressure 569

15.6 Shock and Homeostasis 575

16 The Cardiovascular System: The Blood 583

16.1 Overview of Blood 584

16.2 Erythrocytes 588

16.3 Leukocytes 594

16.4 Platelets 595

16.5 Hemostasis 597

16.6 Blood Groups and Blood Types 603

Chapter Review 609 / Ponder This 610 / Answers to Figure Questions 611

17 The Immune System 612

17.1 Components of the Immune System 613

17.2 Innate Immunity 615

17.3 Adaptive Immunity 622

Chapter Review 643 / Ponder This 644 / Answers to

Figure Questions 645

18 The Respiratory System 646

18.1 Overview of the Respiratory System 647

18.2 Ventilation 654

18.3 Lung Volumes and Capacities 662

18.4 Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide 665

18.5 Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide 669

18.6 Control of Ventilation 676

18.7 Exercise and the Respiratory System 680

Chapter Review 683 / Ponder This 685 / Answers to Figure Questions 685

19 The Urinary System 686

19.1 Overview of Kidney Functions 687

19.2 Organization of the Kidneys 687

19.3 Overview of Renal Physiology 690

19.4 Glomerular Filtration 692

19.5 Tubular Reabsorption and Tubular Secretion 697

19.6 Production of Dilute and Concentrated Urine 709

19.7 Evaluation of Kidney Function 715

19.8 Urine Transportation, Storage, and Elimination 720

19.9 Waste Management in Other Body Systems 722

Chapter Review 724 / Ponder This 726 / Answers to Figure Questions 726

20 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Homeostasis 727

20.1 Fluid Compartments and Fluid Balance 728

20.2 Electrolytes in Body Fluids 734

20.3 Acid–Base Balance 737

Chapter Review 746 / Ponder This 747 / Answers to Figure Questions 747

21 The Digestive System 748

21.1 Overview of the Digestive System 749

21.2 Mouth 755

21.3 Pharynx and Esophagus 757

21.4 Stomach 760

21.5 Pancreas, Liver, and Gallbladder 764

21.6 Small Intestine 769

21.7 Large Intestine 778

21.8 Phases of Digestion 782

21.9 Transport of Lipids by Lipoproteins 784

Chapter Review 789 / Ponder This 790 / Answers to Figure Questions 791

22 Metabolic Adaptations, Energy Balance, and Temperature Regulation 792

22.1 Metabolic Adaptations 793

22.2 Energy Balance 797

22.3 Regulation of Body Temperature 802

Chapter Review 808 / Ponder This 809 / Answers to Figure Questions 809

23 The Reproductive Systems 810

23.1 Reproductive Cell Division 811

23.2 Male Reproductive System 813

23.3 Female Reproductive System 823

23.4 The Human Sexual Response 834

23.5 Sex Determination and Sex Diff erentiation 835

23.6 Aging and the Reproductive Systems 839

23.7 Pregnancy and Labor 840

23.8 Contraception and Abortion 851

23.9 Infertility 854

Chapter Review 856 / Ponder This 859 / Answers to Figure Questions 859

APPENDIX A Measurements A-1

APPENDIX B Periodic Table B-3

APPENDIX C Normal Values for Selected Blood Tests C-4

APPENDIX D Normal Values for Selected Urine Tests D-6

GLOSSARY G-1

INDEX I-1