Chapter 02: Theories of Aging
Meiner: Gerontologic Nursing, 5th Edition
1. The practitioner who believes in the free radical theory of aging is likely to recommend that
the older adult:
a. avoid excessive intake of zinc or magnesium.
b. supplement his or her diet with vitamins C and E.
c. increase intake of complex carbohydrates.
d. avoid the use of alcohol or tobacco.
Vitamins C and E are two naturally occurring antioxidants that appear to inhibit the
functioning of the free radicals or possibly decrease their production in the body. The free
radical theory of aging is not related to zinc, magnesium, carbohydrates, or alcohol and
DIF: Applying (Application) REF: N/A OBJ: 2-2
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Health Promotion
2. To provide effective care to the older adult, the nurse must understand that:
a. older adults are not a homogeneous sociologic group.
b. little variation exists in cohort groups of older adults.
c. health problems are much the same for similar age groups of older adults.
d. withdrawal by an older adult is a normal physiologic response to aging.
The key societal issue addressed by the age stratification theory is the concept of
interdependence between the aging person and society at large. This theory views the aging
person as an individual element of society and also as a member, with peers, interacting in a
social process. The theory attempts to explain the interdependence between older adults and
society and how they constantly influence each other in a variety of ways. Variation exists
among the members of a cohort. Health problems are not the same for every individual of the
same age. Withdrawal by an older adult is not a normal response to aging but may be a sign of
DIF: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 16 OBJ: 2-2
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Health Promotion and Maintenance
3. The nurse is using the eight stages of life theory to help an older adult patient assess the
developmental stage of personal ego differentiation. The nurse does this by assisting the
a. determine feelings regarding the effects of aging on the physical being.
b. describe feelings regarding what he or she expects the future to hold.
c. identify aspects of work, recreation, and family life that provide a sense of
self-worth and pleasure.
d. elaborate on feelings about the prospect of his or her personal death.