Chapter 02: The History of Public Health and Public and Community Health Nursing
Stanhope: Foundations for Population Health in Community/Public Health Nursing,
1. A nurse is considering applying for a position as a public health nurse. Which of the following
would be a reason this position would be appealing?
a. Its autonomy and independence
b. Its focus on acute care and immediately visible outcomes
c. Its collaboration with other health care professionals
d. Its flexibility and higher wages
Public health nursing is known for its autonomy and independence. In many instances, there
are limited other health care professionals and staff with whom to interact. In-patient acute
care nurses focus on acute care with outcomes known fairly quickly. Acute care nurses
collaborate frequently with other health care professionals. Depending on the position there
may be more flexibility, but typically public health nurses do not receive higher wages.
2. The Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601 is similar to which current law?
b. Food stamps
The Elizabethan Poor Law guaranteed medical care for poor, blind, and “lame” individuals,
similar to Medicaid. Welfare and food stamps do not provide for medical care. Medicare
provides medical care to primarily the elderly population.
3. How did the Industrial Revolution result in previous caregiving approaches, such as care by
families, friends, and neighbors, becoming inadequate?
a. Economic and political wars resulted in frequent death and injuries.
b. Incredible plagues consistently and constantly swept the European continent.
c. Migration and urbanization resulted in increased demand for care.
d. Caregivers could easily find other employment, so they demanded to be paid.
Care became inadequate because of the social changes in Europe, with great advances in
transportation, communication, and other technologies. The increased mobility led to
migration and urbanization, which in turn led to increased need for care. The Industrial
Revolution was a time of great advances in technology, transportation, and communication,
not a time of economic and political unrest or a time where incredible plagues occurred in
Europe. Caregivers during this time period were typically poorly educated and untrained, so
there was not an issue related to wages or employment.
4. A colonist is working in the public health sector in early colonial America. Which of the
following activities would have likely been completed?
a. Establishing schools of nursing