Chapter 02: Historical Factors: Community Health Nursing in Context
1. Which of the following best describes the time period when communities began to agree on
collective action to stay healthy?
a. When industrialization occurred
b. When large urban centers began to develop and the population expanded
c. When people gathered together to settle in villages
d. When people were nomads engaged in hunting and gathering
Primitive prehistorical societies had health practices to ensure their survival. Isolation and
fumigation were used for thousands of years. This time period is best described by when
people were nomads engaged in hunting and gathering. Industrialization, development of
large urban centers, and settlement into villages do not describe this time period.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) REF: pp. 20-21
2. Which of the following best describes the first measures used by large communities to
ensure community health?
a. Building safe sewage disposal systems
b. Healthy food choices and exercise
c. Praying to the gods for preservation
d. Use of medicine and other herbal remedies
In classical times, large cities grew, and elaborate drainage systems were constructed. In
Leviticus, the Hebrews formulated the first hygiene code. This hygiene code protected water
and food by creating laws that governed personal and community hygiene, such as contagion,
disinfection, and sanitation. This is best described through the building of safe sewage
disposal systems. Healthy food choices and exercise, praying to the gods for preservation, and
the use of medicine and other herbal measures were not among the first measures used by
large communities to ensure health.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) REF: p. 21
3. A nurse has determined that there is always a consistent level of people in the population who
experience pneumonia. Which of the following best describes the prevalence of this disease?
By definition, when diseases are always present in a population they are called endemic.
Diseases which were occasionally present and often fairly widespread are called epidemic.
Pandemic is used to describe the existence of a disease in a large proportion of the population.
Prevalent means widespread, and would not be the best term to describe this disease.