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Chapter 02 The Chemistry of Life Answer Key
Multiple Choice Questions
Many traits of organisms, such as body form and color, are controlled by specific proteins, in turn controlled by the DNA genetic sequence of nucleotides. The genetic
control of color, as in aphids, does not usually shift during the life of an organism. Researchers found that some specific aphid populations shift from an original red
coloration to a green coloration.
Genetics could be a factor, if some programmed shift could be identified. Environmental conditions of the living and nonliving habitat could be a factor. Either way, the
chemistry and observed changes of pigment molecules in the aphids can be studied with the scientific method.
1. What is the link between colored pigment molecules and other organic molecules?
A. All of the answer choices are correct.
B. In the case of the aphids, the pigment molecules of bacteria are genetically passed on to the DNA of infected aphids.
C. The DNA molecule genetic sequence regulates protein molecule function, which can change pigment structure that affects color.
D. Pigment molecules are made up of all four of the other organic molecule groups.
E. This one group of aphids can easily alter the pigment molecule structure by modifying its DNA nucleotide sequence and building new proteins.
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 02.05.02 Compare and contrast the structures and functions of the four main classes of organic molecules.
Section: 02.05
Section: 02.06
Topic:NucleicAcids
Type:Investigating Life
2. The initial experiment of Koga and Fugatsu, in testing for any bacterial cause of aphid color change, involved all of these except
A. the specific amounts of red and green pigment molecules were initially measured as dependent variables.
B. a group of green aphids was grown, then killed in order to produce an extract to test on red aphids.
C. a group of red aphids was treated with the independent variable of Rickettsiella bacteria infection from green aphids.
D. a group of red aphids was grown as a control group.
E. a group of aphids infected with Rickettsiella bacteria was grown, then killed in order to produce an extract to test on red aphids.
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 02.06.01 Explain how researchers discovered that some ants defend themselves against the toxins of other ants.
Section: 02.06
Topic: Chemical Bonds
Topic: Nucleic Acids
Type: Investigating Life
3. The observations and research on aphid color changes can most directly be summarized in that
A. Koga and Fugatsu proved that the color change from red to green in aphids was ecologically favorable to survival.
B. the method of paper fiber separation of pigment molecules showed that Ricketsiella bacteria were the source of the green coloration of aphids.
C. species of organisms can be chemically diverse and affect each other, even among similar groups of aphids and bacteria.
D. it turned out that the green appearance of aphids was because of the large amount of green Ricketsiella bacteria coating their bodies.
E. All of the answer choices are correct.
Accessibility:Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 02.06.01 Explain how researchers discovered that some ants defend themselves against the toxins of other ants.
Section: 02.06
Topic:Chemical Bonds
Topic: Nucleic Acids
Type:Investigating Life
4. Researchers noted that only a few aphids changed color to green from their original red. This is an unusual observation among any animals. What research question came
out of the observations?
A. Is the color shift of certain aphids due to genetics within a select species?
B. Is the color shift of certain aphids due to changes in weather conditions?
C. Is the color shift of certain aphids due to genetics or some other factor?
D. Do other aphids change colors as they age?
E. Will green aphids change their color to red, or remain green as they age?
Accessibility:KeyboardNavigation
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 02.06.01 Explain how researchers discovered that some ants defend themselves against the toxins of other ants.
Section: 02.06
Topic: Nucleic Acids
Type:Investigating Life
5. The four most abundant elements needed by the human body are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Because these are needed in large amounts to support our cells,
these are referred to as

BIOLOGY CONCEPTS AND INVESTIGATIONS 4TH EDITION HOEFNAGELS TEST BANK

2-2
Copyright © 2018 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
A. buffers.
B. bulk elements.
C. essential elements.
D. trace elements.
E. isotopes.
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 02.01.01 Identify the most abundant essential elements in living organisms.
Learning Outcome: 02.05.02 Compare and contrast the structures and functions of the four main classes of organic molecules.
Section: 02.01
Section: 02.05
Topic:Carbohydrates
Topic: Lipids
Topic: Nucleic Acids
Topic: Proteins
6. In the 1700s, a French scientist, Antoine Lavoisier, gained new experimental information by reacting a metal and an acid. His observation of the results seemed to show
that much of the metal had been lost in the chemical reaction. Upon weighing the products, the total amounts of materials had not changed during the reaction.
This research resulted in the law of conservation of mass. This law also applies to biology, because the materials we are made of are that change forms, but
aren’t truly lost through biochemical reactions.
A. matter
B. isotopes
C. energy
D. metals
E. solutions