Solution Manual (Download Only) For Biology: Science for Life with Physiology, 6th Edition By Belk ISBN-13:9780134868325


Colleen Belk · Virginia Borden Maier

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Solution Manual (Download Only) For Biology: Science for Life with Physiology, 6th Edition By Colleen Belk,Virginia Borden Maier




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Solution Manual (Download Only) For Biology: Science for Life with Physiology, 6th Edition By Colleen Belk,Virginia Borden Maier


Table of Contents

1 Can Science Cure the Common Cold?

Introduction to the Scientific Method

1.1 The Process of Science

The Nature of Hypotheses

Scientific Theories

The Logic of Hypothesis Tests

1.2 Hypothesis Testing

The Experimental Method

Controlled Experiments

Minimizing Bias in Experimental Design

Using Correlation to Test Hypotheses

1.3 Understanding Statistics

What Statistical Tests Can Tell Us

Factors that Influence Statistical Significance

What Statistical Tests Cannot Tell Us

1.4 Evaluating Scientific Information

Primary Sources

Information from Anecdotes

Science in the News

Understanding Science from Secondary Sources

Is There a Cure for the Common Cold?

Sounds Right, But Is It?

THE BIG QUESTION How do I know what to believe?


UNIT ONE Chemistry and Cells

2 Science Fiction, Bad Science, and Pseudoscience

Water, Biochemistry, and Cells

2.1 A Definition of Life

2.2 The Properties of Water

The Structure of Water

Water Is a Good Solvent

Water Facilitates Chemical Reactions

Water Moderates Temperature

The Drinking-Water Hypothesis Requires More Substantiation

2.3 Chemistry for Biology Students

Chemical Bonds

The Bermuda Triangle Revisited

2.4 Biological Macromolecules




Nucleic Acids

Dietary Macromolecules and Behavior

2.5 An Introduction to Evolutionary Theory

Sounds Right, But Is It?

THE BIG QUESTION Does balanced reporting help us draw more accurate conclusions?


3 Is It Possible to Supplement Your Way to Better Performance and Health?

Nutrients and Membrane Transport

3.1 Nutrients




3.2 Cell Structure

Plasma Membrane

Subcellular Structures

3.3 Transport Across Membranes

Passive Transport: Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion, and Osmosis

Active Transport: Pumping Substances across the Membrane

Exocytosis and Endocytosis: Movement of Large Molecules across the Membrane

Sounds Right, But Is It?

THE BIG QUESTION Should I routinely use detox products?


4 Body Weight and Health

Enzymes, Metabolism, and Cellular Respiration

4.1 Enzymes and Metabolism



4.2 Cellular Respiration

Structure and Function of ATP

Cellular Respiration

Stages of Cellular Respiration

Metabolism of Other Nutrients

Metabolism without Oxygen: Anaerobic Respiration and Fermentation

4.3 Body Weight and Health

Body Mass Index

Underweight Is Unhealthy

Sounds Right, But Is It?

THE BIG QUESTION How unhealthy is anorexia?


5 Life in the Greenhouse

Photosynthesis and Climate Change

5.1 The Greenhouse Effect

Earth Is a Greenhouse

Water, Heat, and Temperature

5.2 The Flow of Carbon

5.3 Can Photosynthesis Slow Down Global Climate Change?

Chloroplasts: The Site of Photosynthesis

The Process of Photosynthesis

5.4 How High Temperatures Might Reduce Photosynthesis

5.5 How We Can Slow Global Climate Change

Sounds Right, But Is It?

THE BIG QUESTION Should global warming be kept below 4°C?


UNIT TWO Genetics

6 Cancer

DNA Synthesis and Mitosis

6.1 What Is Cancer?

Tumors Can Be Cancerous

Risk Factors for Cancer

6.2 Passing Genes and Chromosomes to Daughter Cells

Genes and Chromosomes

DNA Replication

6.3 The Cell Cycle and Mitosis




6.4 Cancer Prevention, Detection, and Treatment

Tumor Suppressors Help Prevent Cancer

Cancer Detection

Cancer Treatment

Sounds Right, But Is It?

THE BIG QUESTION Can I prevent myself from getting cancer?


7 Fertility

Meiosis and Human Reproduction

7.1 Producing Sperm and Eggs: Meiosis


Meiosis I

Meiosis II

7.2 Problems with Meiosis and Lowered Fertility

7.3 Bringing Sperm and Egg Together

Male Reproductive Anatomy

Female Reproductive Anatomy

Sounds Right, But Is It?

THE BIG QUESTION Does marijuana use impair fertility?


8 Does Testing Save Lives?

Mendelian Genetics

8.1 The Inheritance of Traits

Genes and Chromosomes

Producing Diversity in Offspring

8.2 Basic Mendelian Genetics: When the Role of Genes Is Clear

Genotype and Phenotype

Genetic Diseases in Humans

Using Punnett Squares to Predict Offspring Genotypes

8.3 Extensions of Mendelian Genetics

8.4 Sex and Inheritance

Sex Determination and X-Linkage


Sounds Right, But Is It?

THE BIG QUESTION Should there be universal screening for killer diseases?


9 Biology of Wrongful Convictions

Complex Genetic Traits, Heritability, and DNA Profiling

9.1 Eyewitness Testimony and Complex Genetic Traits

Polygenic Traits

Quantitative Traits

9.2 Genes, Criminality, and Implicit Bias

Studying Nature versus Nurture

The Use and Misuse of Heritability

Implicit Bias

9.3 Positive Identification

DNA Profiling

Polymerase Chain Reaction

Sounds Right, But Is It?

The Big Question Should the death penalty be abolished in the United States?


10 Genetically Modified Organisms

Gene Expression, Mutation, Stem Cells, and Cloning

10.1 Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression

From Gene to Protein




Gene Expression

10.2 Producing Recombinant Proteins

Cloning a Gene Using Bacteria

FDA Regulations

10.3 Genetically Modified Plants and Animals

Modifying Crop Plants

Modifying Animals

Gene Editing Using CRISPR in Plants and Animals

10.4 Genetically Modified Humans

Stem Cells

Gene Therapy

Gene Editing in Humans

Cloning Humans

Sounds Right, But Is It?

THE BIG QUESTION Should anti-GMO activists give up the fight?


UNIT THREE Evolution

11 Where Did We Come From?

The Evidence for Evolution

11.1 What Is Evolution?

The Process of Evolution

The Theory of Evolution

11.2 Charles Darwin and the Theory of Evolution

Early Views of Evolution

The Voyage of the Beagle

Developing the Hypothesis of Common Descent

Alternative Ideas on the Origins and Relationships among Organisms

11.3 Examining the Evidence for Common Descent

Linnaean Classification

Anatomical Homology

Developmental Homologies

Molecular Homology


The Fossil Record

11.4 Are Alternatives to the Theory of Evolution Equally Valid?

Weighing the Alternatives

The Best Scientific Explanation for the Diversity of Life

Sounds Right, But Is It?

THE BIG QUESTION Should high school biology teachers be required to “teach the controversy”?


12 An Evolving Enemy

Natural Selection

12.1 Return of a Killer

What Is Tuberculosis?

Treatment—and Treatment Failure

12.2 Natural Selection Causes Evolution

Darwin’s Observations

Darwin’s Inference: Natural Selection Causes Evolution

Testing Natural Selection

12.3 Natural Selection Since Darwin

The Modern Synthesis

The Subtleties of Natural Selection

Patterns of Selection

12.4 Natural Selection and Human Health

Tuberculosis Fits Darwin’s Observations

Selecting for Drug Resistance

Stopping Drug Resistance

Can Natural Selection Save Us from Superbugs?

Sounds Right, But Is It?

THE BIG QUESTION Should I stop purchasing meats that are raised using antibiotics?


13 Understanding Race

Speciation and Macroevolution

13.1 What Is a Species?

The Biological Species Concept


Isolation and Divergence of Gene Pools

The Evolution of Reproductive Isolation

13.2 Are Human Races Biological?

The History of Human Races

The Morphological Species Concept

Modern Humans: A History

Genetic Evidence of Divergence

Human Races Are Not Isolated Biological Groups

Human Races Have Never Been Truly Isolated

13.3 Why Human Groups Differ

Natural Selection

Convergent Evolution

Genetic Drift

Sexual Selection

Assortative Mating

Sounds Right, But Is It?

THE BIG QUESTION Are affirmative action policies that favor black students applying for college admission good public policy?


14 The Greatest Species on Earth?

Biodiversity and Classification

14.1 Biological Classification

How Many Species Exist?

Domains of Life

14.2 The Diversity of Life

The Domains Bacteria and Archaea

The Origin of the Domain Eukarya

The Protista

Kingdom Animalia

Kingdom Fungi

Kingdom Plantae

Not Quite Living: Viruses

14.3 Learning about Species

Reconstructing Evolutionary History

The Greatest Species on Earth

Sounds Right, But Is It?

THE BIG QUESTION Should lab mice and rats have the same rights as other nonhuman animals?



15 Is the Human Population Too Large?

Population Ecology

15.1 Population Growth

Population Structure

Exponential Population Growth

The Demographic Transition

15.2 Limits to Population Growth

Carrying Capacity and Logistic Growth

Earth’s Carrying Capacity for Humans

15.3 The Future of the Human Population

A Possible Population Crash?

Avoiding Disaster

Sounds Right, But Is It?

THE BIG QUESTION Should the international community continue to provide food aid to populations experiencing food crises?


16 Conserving Biodiversity

Community and Ecosystem Ecology

16.1 The Sixth Extinction

Measuring Extinction Rates

Causes of Extinction

16.2 The Consequences of Extinction

Loss of Resources

Predation, Mutualism, and Competition

Energy and Chemical Flows

Psychological Effects

16.3 Saving Species

Protecting Habitat

Small Populations Are Vulnerable

Conservation Genetics

Protecting Biodiversity versus Meeting Human Needs

Sounds Right, But Is It?

THE BIG QUESTION Is wind power good or bad for birds?


17 The Human Footprint

Climate and Biomes

17.1 Climate Determines Habitability

Global Temperature and Precipitation Patterns

Local Influences on Climate

17.2 Terrestrial Biomes and the Human Footprint



Forests and Shrublands


17.3 Aquatic Biomes and the Human Footprint



Sounds Right, But Is It?

THE BIG QUESTION Can my actions make a difference on global environmental issues?


UNIT FIVE Animal Structure and Function

18 Organ Donation

Tissues and Organs

18.1 Tissues

Epithelial Tissue

Connective Tissue

Muscle Tissue

Nervous Tissue

Tissue Donation

18.2 Organs and Organ Systems

18.3 Regulating the Internal Environment

Negative Feedback

Positive Feedback

Growing and Printing Replacement Organs

Organ Donation Saves Lives

Sounds Right, But Is It?

THE BIG QUESTION Should kidney donors be financially compensated?

Chapter Review

19 Binge Drinking

The Digestive and Urinary Systems

19.1 The Digestive System

Mechanical and Chemical Breakdown of Food

Absorption of Digested Foods

Regulation of Digestive Secretions

19.2 Removing Toxins from the Body: The Urinary System

Kidney Structure and Function

Engaging Safely with Alcohol

Sounds Right, But Is It?

THE BIG QUESTION Does alcohol make men more likely to commit sexual assault?

Chapter Review

20 Clearing the Air

Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems

20.1 Effects of Smoke on the Respiratory     System

What Happens When You Take a Breath?

Gas Exchange

The Role of Hemoglobin in Gas Exchange

Smoke Particles and Lung Function

20.2 Spreading the Effects of Smoke: The Cardiovascular System

Structure of the Cardiovascular System

Movement of Materials through the Cardiovascular System

Smoke and Cardiovascular Disease

The Precautionary Principle in Public Health

Sounds Right, But Is It?

The Big Question Should marijuana be legalized?

Chapter Review

21 Vaccination: Protection and Prevention or Peril?

Immune System, Bacteria, Viruses, and Other Pathogens

21.1 Infectious Agents



Eukaryotic Pathogens

21.2 The Body’s Response to Infection: The Immune System

First Line of Defense: Skin and Mucous Membranes

Second Line of Defense: Phagocytes and Macrophages, Inflammation, Defensive Proteins, and Fever

Third Line of Defense: Lymphocytes

Cell-Mediated and Antibody-Mediated Immunity

Sounds Right, But Is It?

THE BIG QUESTION Why are females vaccinated against human papilloma virus more often than males?

Chapter Review

22 Human Sex Differences

Endocrine, Skeletal, and Muscular Systems

22.1 The Endocrine System


Endocrine Glands

22.2 The Skeletal System

Bone Structure and Remodeling

Sex Differences in Bone Structure

22.3 The Muscular System

Muscle Structure and Contraction

Muscle Interaction with Bones

Sex Differences in Muscle

22.4 Other Biology-Based Sex Differences

Sounds Right, But Is It?

THE BIG QUESTION Is sex selection an acceptable practice?

Chapter Review

23 Zika in Pregnancy

Developmental Biology, Menstruation, Birth Control, and Pregnancy

23.1 Early Development


Embryonic Development

Development of the Brain When Zika Is Present

23.2 Avoiding or Delaying Pregnancy

The Menstrual Cycle

Birth Control Methods

23.3 Pregnancy and Childbirth

Sounds Right, But Is It?

THE BIG QUESTION When does human life begin?

Chapter Review

24 Study Drugs: Brain Boost or Brain Drain?

Brain Structure and Function

24.1 The Nervous System

Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

The Senses

Amphetamines Effects

24.2 The Human Brain


Thalamus and Hypothalamus

Cerebellum and Brain Stem

24.3 Neurons

Neuron Structure and Function

Nonmedical Use of ADD Medications

Consequences of Using Nonprescribed ADD Medications

Sounds Right, But Is It?

THE BIG QUESTION Is drug addiction a disease of the brain?

Chapter Review

UNIT SIX Plant Biology

25 Feeding the World

Plant Structure and Growth

25.1 Plants as Food

The Evolution of Agriculture: Food Plant Diversity

Plant Structure

Plant Reproduction

25.2 Plant Growth Requirements

How Plants Grow

Maximizing Plant Growth: Water, Nutrients, and Pest Control

Designing Better Plants: Hybrids and Genetic Engineering

25.3 The Future of Agriculture

Modern Agriculture Causes Environmental Damage

How to Reduce the Damage

Sounds Right, But Is It?

THE BIG QUESTION Should I purchase organically grown foods?

Chapter Review

26 Growing a Green Thumb

Plant Physiology

26.1 The Right Plant for the Place: Water Relations


Adaptations That Affect Transpiration

Water Inside Plant Cells

26.2 A Beautiful Garden: Translocation and Photoperiodism

Translocation of Sugars and Nutrients

Managing Translocation


26.3 Pleasing Forms: Tropisms and Hormones



We Are All Gardeners

Sounds Right, But Is It?